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BISU VALUE

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Urine contains precious data on your diet, metabolism and hormones. Capture these data with Bisu

Biomarkers tested

KETOSIS

BHB & AcAc

DIETARY ACID LOAD

pH & Uric acid

HYDRATION

Specific gravity

ELECTROLYTES

Na, K, Mg & Ca

Supporting science

KETOSIS

BHB & AcAc

Your liver produces ketones from fat when glucose levels are low to supply your brain and muscles with an alternative energy source. Ketone bodies come in two main forms: BHB and AcAc. BHB is the dominant ketone and increases relative to AcAc during ketosis. 

Ketones which are not used for energy spill into the urine. Because a conventional urine test strip only measures AcAc and has a low detection sensitivity, it has a poor correlation with blood ketones and stops detecting ketones over time.

Bisu is the first device to measure both BHB and AcAc in urine with a high detection sensitivity. This lets you detect ketones earlier than a conventional urine test strip, but as long as a blood reader and without pricking your finger.

DIETARY ACID LOAD

pH & Uric acid

The human body must keep its pH within a very narrow range (typically 7.35 – 7.45) in order to function properly. While it is not possible to change this pH significantly through your diet, excess acidity is continuously removed from the body through the breath and urine to maintain the correct pH. Foods such as meat, grains, salt and saturated fat produce acidity, and foods such as fruit and vegetables produce alkalinity.

If your diet is too acidic, it places creates a metabolic stress which promotes insulin resistance and affects muscle retention, bone density and kidney function. Dietary acid makes it harder to remove lactic acid from the muscles, and so reduces anaerobic exercise performance. Tracking pH can help avoid these pitfalls.

HYDRATION

Specific gravity

Urine specific gravity measures the concentration of particles in urine and the density of urine compared with the density of water. The more hydrated you are, the more diluted your urine becomes and the lower its specific gravity. Conversely, the less hydrated you are the more concentrated your urine becomes and the higher its specific gravity.

Because urine color can be affected by many factors including diet, exercise, infections and drugs, specific gravity is a much more reliable indicator of your hydration status.

ELECTROLYTES

Na, K, Mg & Ca

Sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are critical electrolytes which are all excreted in urine. Sodium and potassium help regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals. Magnesium supports the immune system and bone health, regulates heart beat and glucose levels, and helps create energy and proteins. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth, and maintain healthy blood pressure. 

Measuring electrolyte levels can help ensure your body has enough – not too much or too little – of what you need to perform at your best.

Relevant citations

  1. Penders J, Fiers T, Giri M, Wuyts B, Ysewyn L, Delanghe JR. (2006). Quantitative measurement of ketone bodies in urine using reflectometry. Clin Chem Lab Med. 43(7):724-9
  2. Sapir DG, Owen OE. (1975). Renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation. Metabolism. 24(1):23-33
  3. Reichard GA Jr, Owen OE, Haff AC, Paul P, Bortz WM (1974). Ketone-body production and oxidation in fasting obese humans. J Clin Invest. 53(2):508-15
  4. Galvin RD, Harris JA, Johnson RE. (1968). Urinary excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate during experimental ketosis. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci. 53(2):181-93
  5. Mann SJ1, Gerber LM. (2010). Estimation of 24-h sodium excretion from a spot urine sample using chloride and creatinine dipsticks. Am J Hypertens. 23(7):743-8
  6. Mana Kogure, Takumi Hirata, Naoki Nakaya, Naho Tsuchiya, Tomohiro Nakamura, Akira Narita, Ken Miyagawa, Hiroshi Koshimizu, Taku Obara, Hirohito Metoki, Akira Uruno, Masahiro Kikuya, Junichi Sugawara, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa (2019). Multiple measurements of urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio strongly related with home hypertension. AHA Journals. 139:AP183
  7. Yatabe MS, Iwahori T, Watanabe A, Takano K, Sanada H, Watanabe T, Ichihara A, Felder RA, Miura K, Ueshima H, Kimura J, Yatabe J (2017). Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio tracks changes in salt intake during an experimental feeding study using standardized low-salt and high-salt meals among healthy Japanese volunteers. Nutrients. 29;9(9). pii: E951

  8. Koo H, Lee SG, Kim JH (2015). Evaluation of random urine sodium and potassium compensated by creatinine as alternative markers for 24hr excretion. Ann Lab Med. 35(2):238-41.
  9. Joosten MM, Gansevoort RT, Mukamal KJ, Kootstra-Ros JE, Feskens EJ, Geleijnse JM, Navis G, Bakker SJ; PREVEND Study Group (2013). Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study. Hypertension. 61(6):1161-7
  10. Ilich JZ, Blanusa M, Orlić ZC, Orct T, Kostial K (2009). Comparison of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and creatinine in 24-h and spot urine samples. Clin Chem Lab Med. 47(2):216-21
  11. Zubac D, Paravlic A, Reale R, Jelaska I, Morrison SA, Ivancev V (2019). Fluid balance and hydration status in combat sport Olympic athletes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled and uncontrolled studies. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar 1
  12. Zhang N, Du S, Tang Z, Zheng M, Yan R, Zhu Y, Ma G8 (2017). Hydration, fluid intake, and related urine biomarkers among male college students in Cangzhou, China: A cross-sectional study – Applications for assessing fluid intake and adequate water intake. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 11;14(5). pii: E513

  13. Nesli Ersoy, Gulgun Ersoy, Mehmet Kutlu (2016). Assessment of hydration status of elite young male soccer players with different methods and new approach method of substitute urine strip. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 13(1): 34

  14. Welch AA, Mulligan A, Bingham SA, Khaw KT (2008). Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes. Br J Nutr. 99(6):1335-43.
  15. Remer T, Manz F (1995). Potential renal acid load of foods and influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc. 95(7):791-7.
  16. Caciano SL, Inman CL, Gockel-Blessing EE, Weiss EP (2015). Effects of dietary acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance. J Sports Sci Med. 8;14(2):364-71
  17. Hietavala EM, Stout JR, Frassetto LA, Puurtinen R, Pitkänen H, Selänne H, Suominen H, Mero AA. (2015). Dietary acid load and renal function have varying effects on blood acid-base status and exercise performance across age and sex (2015). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 42(12):1330-1340
  18. Hietavala EM, Ihalainen JK, Frassetto LA, Schumann M, Eklund D, Pitkänen H, Häkkinen K, Mero AA. Effects of 12-week low or moderate dietary acid intake on acid–base status and kidney function at rest and during submaximal cycling. Nutrients. 8;10(3). pii: E323
  19. Hietavala EM, Stout JR, Hulmi JJ, Suominen H, Pitkänen H, Puurtinen R, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Mero AA (2015). Effect of diet composition on acid–base balance in adolescents, young adults and elderly at rest and during exercise. Eur J Clin Nutr. 69(3):399-404

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