Unlock better health

Urine contains precious data on your health. Capture these data with Bisu Body Coach, and discover a healthier, happier you.

Biomarkers tested

Electrolytes

Na, K, Mg and Ca

Hydration

Specific gravity

Ketones

BHB & AcAc

pH

pH

Uric acid

Uric acid

Supporting science

Electrolytes

Na, K, Mg and Ca

Sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium are critical electrolytes which are all excreted in urine. Sodium and potassium help regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals. Magnesium supports the immune system and bone health, regulates heart beat and glucose levels, and helps create energy and proteins. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth, and maintain healthy blood pressure. 

Measuring urine electrolyte levels can help ensure you have enough of each to perform at your best.

Hydration

Specific gravity

Urine specific gravity is a measure of how concentrated your urine is. The more hydrated you are, the more diluted your urine becomes and the lower its specific gravity. Conversely, the less hydrated you are the more concentrated your urine becomes and the higher its specific gravity.

Because urine color can be affected by many factors including diet, exercise, infections and drugs, specific gravity is a much more reliable indicator of hydration status.

Ketones

BHB & AcAc

Your liver produces ketones from fat when glucose levels are low to supply your brain and muscles with energy. Ketones come in two main forms: BHB (β-hydroxybutyrate) and AcAc (acetoacetate). BHB is the dominant ketone and increases relative to AcAc during ketosis. Conventional urine test strips only test AcAc, excretion of which decreases during prolonged ketosis. They also have a low sensitivity.

Bisu Body Coach is the first device to measure both BHB and AcAc in urine with a high detection sensitivity. This lets you track ketosis earlier than a conventional urine test strip, but as long as a blood reader and without pricking your finger.

pH

pH

Your body keeps its internal pH in a very tight range in order to function properly. To do this, it must remove any excess acidity generated by your diet and exercise. The process of removing acidity places a burden on the kidneys and depletes precious resources – bicarbonate from blood, potassium from muscles, and calcium from bones. In the short term, an acidic diet creates a sub-optimal environment for muscle retention and growth, bone strength and exercise performance. In the long term, an acidic diet accelerates the decline of kidney function.

Measuring urine pH is a convenient way to track the level of excess acidity from your diet and training.

Uric acid

Uric acid

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are both produced in the body and also found in some foods and drinks, such as liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans, peas and beer. Uric acid plays an important role as an antioxidant, helping to scavenge free radicals in the body. At the same time, too much uric acid can lead to gout, metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease. High levels can be caused by stress, genetics and/or obesity, not only dietary purine intake.

Measuring urine uric acid is a convenient way to monitor dietary intake of uric acid and avoid intake from becoming excessively high.

Relevant citations

  1. Penders J, Fiers T, Giri M, Wuyts B, Ysewyn L, Delanghe JR. (2006). Quantitative measurement of ketone bodies in urine using reflectometry. Clin Chem Lab Med. 43(7):724-9
  2. Sapir DG, Owen OE. (1975). Renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation. Metabolism. 24(1):23-33
  3. Reichard GA Jr, Owen OE, Haff AC, Paul P, Bortz WM (1974). Ketone-body production and oxidation in fasting obese humans. J Clin Invest. 53(2):508-15
  4. Galvin RD, Harris JA, Johnson RE. (1968). Urinary excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate during experimental ketosis. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci. 53(2):181-93
  5. Mann SJ1, Gerber LM. (2010). Estimation of 24-h sodium excretion from a spot urine sample using chloride and creatinine dipsticks. Am J Hypertens. 23(7):743-8
  6. Mana Kogure, Takumi Hirata, Naoki Nakaya, Naho Tsuchiya, Tomohiro Nakamura, Akira Narita, Ken Miyagawa, Hiroshi Koshimizu, Taku Obara, Hirohito Metoki, Akira Uruno, Masahiro Kikuya, Junichi Sugawara, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa (2019). Multiple measurements of urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio strongly related with home hypertension. AHA Journals. 139:AP183
  7. Yatabe MS, Iwahori T, Watanabe A, Takano K, Sanada H, Watanabe T, Ichihara A, Felder RA, Miura K, Ueshima H, Kimura J, Yatabe J (2017). Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio tracks changes in salt intake during an experimental feeding study using standardized low-salt and high-salt meals among healthy Japanese volunteers. Nutrients. 29;9(9). pii: E951

  8. Koo H, Lee SG, Kim JH (2015). Evaluation of random urine sodium and potassium compensated by creatinine as alternative markers for 24hr excretion. Ann Lab Med. 35(2):238-41.
  9. Joosten MM, Gansevoort RT, Mukamal KJ, Kootstra-Ros JE, Feskens EJ, Geleijnse JM, Navis G, Bakker SJ; PREVEND Study Group (2013). Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study. Hypertension. 61(6):1161-7
  10. Ilich JZ, Blanusa M, Orlić ZC, Orct T, Kostial K (2009). Comparison of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and creatinine in 24-h and spot urine samples. Clin Chem Lab Med. 47(2):216-21
  11. Zubac D, Paravlic A, Reale R, Jelaska I, Morrison SA, Ivancev V (2019). Fluid balance and hydration status in combat sport Olympic athletes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled and uncontrolled studies. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar 1
  12. Zhang N, Du S, Tang Z, Zheng M, Yan R, Zhu Y, Ma G8 (2017). Hydration, fluid intake, and related urine biomarkers among male college students in Cangzhou, China: A cross-sectional study – Applications for assessing fluid intake and adequate water intake. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 11;14(5). pii: E513

  13. Nesli Ersoy, Gulgun Ersoy, Mehmet Kutlu (2016). Assessment of hydration status of elite young male soccer players with different methods and new approach method of substitute urine strip. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 13(1): 34

  14. Welch AA, Mulligan A, Bingham SA, Khaw KT (2008). Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes. Br J Nutr. 99(6):1335-43.
  15. Remer T, Manz F (1995). Potential renal acid load of foods and influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc. 95(7):791-7.
  16. Caciano SL, Inman CL, Gockel-Blessing EE, Weiss EP (2015). Effects of dietary acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance. J Sports Sci Med. 8;14(2):364-71
  17. Hietavala EM, Stout JR, Frassetto LA, Puurtinen R, Pitkänen H, Selänne H, Suominen H, Mero AA. (2015). Dietary acid load and renal function have varying effects on blood acid-base status and exercise performance across age and sex (2015). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 42(12):1330-1340
  18. Hietavala EM, Ihalainen JK, Frassetto LA, Schumann M, Eklund D, Pitkänen H, Häkkinen K, Mero AA. Effects of 12-week low or moderate dietary acid intake on acid–base status and kidney function at rest and during submaximal cycling. Nutrients. 8;10(3). pii: E323
  19. Hietavala EM, Stout JR, Hulmi JJ, Suominen H, Pitkänen H, Puurtinen R, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Mero AA (2015). Effect of diet composition on acid–base balance in adolescents, young adults and elderly at rest and during exercise. Eur J Clin Nutr. 69(3):399-404

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