BHB & AcAc
DIETARY ACID LOAD
BHB & AcAc
Your liver produces ketones from fat when glucose levels are low to supply your brain and muscles with an alternative energy source. Ketone bodies come in two main forms: BHB and AcAc. BHB is the dominant ketone and increases relative to AcAc during ketosis.
Ketones which are not used for energy spill into the urine. Because a conventional urine test strip only measures AcAc and has a low detection sensitivity, it has a poor correlation with blood ketones and stops detecting ketones over time.
Bisu is the first device to measure both BHB and AcAc in urine with a high detection sensitivity. This lets you detect ketones earlier than a conventional urine test strip, but as long as a blood reader and without pricking your finger.
DIETARY ACID LOAD
The human body must keep its pH within a very narrow range (typically 7.35 – 7.45) in order to function properly. While it is not possible to change this pH significantly through your diet, excess acidity is continuously removed from the body through the breath and urine to maintain the correct pH. Foods such as meat, grains, salt and saturated fat produce acidity, and foods such as fruit and vegetables produce alkalinity.
If your diet is too acidic, it places creates a metabolic stress which promotes insulin resistance and affects muscle retention, bone density and kidney function. Dietary acid makes it harder to remove lactic acid from the muscles, and so reduces anaerobic exercise performance. Tracking pH can help avoid these pitfalls.
Urine specific gravity measures the concentration of particles in urine and the density of urine compared with the density of water. The more hydrated you are, the more your dilute your urine becomes and the lower its specific gravity. Conversely, the less hydrated you are the more concentrated your urine becomes and the higher its specific gravity.
Because urine color can be affected by many factors including diet, exercise, infections and drugs, specific gravity is a much more reliable indicator of your hydration status.
Na, K & Mg
Sodium (Na), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are critical electrolytes which are all excreted in urine. Sodium and potassium help regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals. Magnesium supports the immune system and bone health, regulates the heart beat and glucose levels, and aids the production of energy and protein.
Measuring electrolyte levels can help ensure your body has enough – not too much or too little – of what you need to perform at your best.
Urea is the main nitrogen-producing substance in urine and is a product of protein metabolism. Accordingly, urea nitrogen can be used to estimate dietary protein intake. Having too little protein in your diet will make it harder to build muscle size and tone, and increase the chance of your existing muscle being catabolized to provide energy. Having too much protein in your diet can increase your dietary acid load.
Measuring urea nitrogen together with pH can help you calibrate your macronutrient ratios to optimize your body composition.
A normal, healthy person does not excrete significant amounts of protein in urine. However, exercise causes even healthy people to temporarily excrete significant quantities of protein in a two-stage pattern. The amount of protein excreted following exercise is correlated with exercise intensity. The amount of protein excreted 24-48 hours later is correlated with the residual oxidative stress (as assessed by blood TBARS and carbonyl content) caused by such training, and reduces in response to antioxidant intake.
Measuring total protein in your urine can help you track and calibrate the intensity and frequency of your workouts, and adjust your diet and rest in response thereto.
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